Chapter 22: Berkeley

Berkeley felt that all current philosophies and science were a threat to the Christian way of life, that all-pervading materialism represented a threat to the Christian faith in God as creator and preserver of all nature.

Berkeley questioned whether the material world was, in fact, reality.

The spirit is where all the ideas and senses and consciousness exists. The soul can be the origin of one's own ideas, such as in dreams. But some other entity must be the cause of the reality we exist in.

Berkeley believed that therefore this spirit or entity was God. "We can moreover claim that the existence of God is far more clearly perceived than the existence of man." He believed that everything we see and feel is an effect of God's power and that God was intimately present in our consciousness. "The whole world around us and our whole life exist in God."